You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-4, which are based on Reading Passage below.
A. The term 'alternative practitioner' first became common currency in the 1960s as part of a movement in healthcare which espoused a value system quite distinct from orthodox or western medicine. More recently, 'practitioners of complementary medicine' have sought to define themselves as distinct from 'alternative practitioners' in so far as they seek to work closely with the established medical profession to relieve a patient's symptoms. In a contemporary setting, the terms are often used interchangeably. But complementary medicine is perhaps a more fashionable term amongst those who aspire to greater integration within orthodox medicine-an attempt to gain respectability in the eyes of the establishment.
B. Complementary medicine comprises a range of physical therapies, including reflexology, aromatherapy, shiatsu and acupuncture, which can be used to help ease symptoms associated with a range of conditions. None of these therapies claims to be a panacea. They simply help to relieve symptoms, although in some cases they may result in a permanent cure. The basic principle is that the body ultimately heals itself with the intervention of a particular therapy 'kick starting' and subsequently, speeding up this process. The therapies work on an energetic level to impact on a psychological, emotional and physiological level helping to alleviate short-term stress-induced conditions and, to a greater or lesser degree, chronic problems. All complementary therapies can be used as a preventative measure and to strengthen the constitution. Their common aim is to treat the whole person, with the goal of recovering the equilibrium between the physical, emotional and spiritual aspects of the individual. The focus is very much on improving overall well-being rather than the isolated treatment of specific symptoms. Where the therapies differ is their particular approach.
C. Reflexology is a treatment which was introduced to the West about 100 years ago, although it was practised in ancient Egypt, India and East Asia. It involves gently focused pressure on the feet to both diagnose and treat illness. A reflexologist may detect imbalances in the body on an energetic level through detecting tiny crystals on the feet. Treating these points can result in the release of blockages in other parts of the body. It has been found to be an especially useful treatment for sinus and upper respiratory tract conditions and poor lymphatic and cardiovascular circulation. Anecdotal evidence from various practitioners suggests it can also be effective in treating migraine, hormonal imbalances, digestive, circulatory and back problems.
D. Aromatherapy massage is a western medicine invention. The therapeutic effects of the essential oils used were first investigated early last century by a French chemist, Rene Maurice Gattefosse. Today, the beneficial effects of the oils are dispensed through aromatherapy massage, bath and shower preparations and the burning of oils. Essential oils work by entering the body through both the skin and lungs. Powerful molecules in the oils can affect cells in the nervous and circulatory systems to varying degrees. The effect on the olfactory centres of the brain is both physiological and psychological. Again, anecdotal evidence suggests aromatherapy is particularly useful in alleviating symptoms of respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis and asthma.
E. Shiatsu is a Japanese healing art deeply rooted in the philosophy and practices of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). It is a hands-on therapy which aims to rebalance tensions and weaknesses in the body and mind. Shiatsu incorporates the traditional therapeutic massage of Japan, which in itself is an adaption of ancient Chinese massage therapy. Embracing its original focus of meditation and self-healing, shiatsu is gaining popularity in the West. The term shiatsu comes from Japanese: "shi" meaning finger, and "atsu" meaning pressure. In a shiatsu session, pressure is applied to various parts of the body which correspond with the points and energy lines (meridians) used in acupuncture.
F. Shiatsu has been successfully used for treating headaches, neck and upper back tension, lower back conditions such as lumbago and sciatica, other muscular-skeletal problems such as frozen shoulder, tennis and golfer's elbow, carpal tunnel syndrome, and osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis. Along with acupuncture, it can be very effective in treating digestive complaints involving organs from the stomach through to the large intestine and menstrual problems. It is ideal for people who have an aversion to needles or who prefer the hands on body contact that shiatsu involves.
G. Acupuncture is a very focused form of treatment which uses needles to rebalance the body's Energetics. According to traditional Chinese philosophy, our health is dependent on the body's energy-known as Qi moving in a smooth and balanced way through the channels beneath the skin. Disruptions in this flow are associated with illness and pain, which may relate to anxiety, stress, anger, fear or grief, poor nutrition, weather conditions, hereditary factors, infections and other trauma. The insertion of needles into the skin and then energy channels helps to stimulate the body's own healing response and to restore its natural balance. Acupuncture has over 3000 years of empirical evidence to support its efficacy, it is probably the most effective way of treating a diverse range of conditions. These include conditions of a more emotional focus including anxiety states, depression (including what in the West is known as manic depression), and sleep related disorders. Other illnesses treated by acupuncture include arthritis, asthma, circulatory problems (i.e. high blood pressure, facial paralysis (pre- and post-stroke), fatigue, tinnitus, infertility, menstrual problems, rheumatism, multiple sclerosis. Parkinson's disease, migraines, sciatica, skin conditions and ulcers.
Choose one phrase (A - H) from the List of phrases to complete each Key piece of information about the four complementary therapies mentioned in the passage. Write the appropriate letters (A-H) in Boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.
NB. There are more phrases (A-H) than therapies, so you will not need to use them all. You may use each phrase once only.
1. Reflexology ...
2. Aromatherapy ...
4. Acupuncture ...
A. is based on oils made from flower extracts
B. strives to rebalance tensions and weaknesses in the body
C. is based on several millennia of empirical evidence
D. has been found to be particularly useful in treating sinus problems
E. is based on ancient Chinese massage therapy adapted from ancient Japanese massage
H. is a form of treatment which affects centres connected with smell in the brain psychologically and physiologically