FINDING THE LOST FREEDOM
1. As individuals, parents strive to provide the best upbringing they can for their children. However, in doing so, (e.g. by driving their children to sport, school or recreation) parents may be contributing to a more dangerous environment for children generally. The idea that 'streets are for cars and back yards and playgrounds are for children' is a strongly held belief, and parents have little choice as individuals but to keep their children off the streets' if they want to protect their safety.
2. In many parts of Dutch cities, and some traffic calmed precincts in Germany, residential streets are now places where cars must give way to pedestrians. In these areas, residents are accepting the view that the function of streets 'is not solely to provide mobility for cars. Streets may also be for social interaction, walking, cycling and playing. One of the most important aspects of these European cities, in terms of giving cities back to children, has been a range of 'traffic calming' initiatives, aimed at reducing the volume and speed of traffic. These initiatives have had complex interactive effects, leading to a sense that children have been able to 'recapture' their local neighborhood, and more importantly, that they have been able to do this in safety. Recent research has demonstrated that children in many German cities have significantly higher levels of freedom to travel to places in their own neighbourhood or city than children in other cities in the world, (ai p p g. com)
3. Modifying cities in order to enhance children's freedom will not only benefit children. Such cities will become more environmentally sustainable, as well as more sociable and more livable for all city residents. Perhaps it will be our concern for our children's welfare that convinces us that we need to challenge the dominance of the car in our cities.
Questions 1-5 are statement beginnings which represent information given in Paragraphs . In the box below, there are some statement endings numbered i-x. Choose the correct ending for each statement.
1.Children should play ...
2.In some German towns, pedestrians have right of way ...
3.Streets should also be used for ...
4.Reducing the amount of traffic and the speed is ...
5.All people who live in the city will benefit if cities are ...
List of statement endings
i... a dangerous environment
iii... on residential streets.
iv ... modifying cities.
v ... neighbourhoods.
vii... in backyards.
viii... for cars.
ix... traffic calming.
x ... residential