Reading: / Multiple Choice Type Question (MCQ) / Part 3


A heart attack is caused by a reduction in the blood supply to the heart muscles. This is most commonly caused by a blood clot obstructing an artery in the heart. Heart attacks can be mild or severe. If you suspect that someone has had a heart attack call for medical help immediately. Signs of a heart attack

  • Sudden onset of pain in the centre of the chest. The pain will be vice - like, crushing. It could be
    confused with very severe indigestion. It may spread upwards and out wards to the throat, jaw and arms.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • The pulse rate may become faster or weak and irregular.
  • The casualty will become pale and sweaty and show signs of shock


Action to take

Call an ambulance. Check the heartbeat and breathing. If it has stopped, then commence external chest compression and mouth-to-mouth ventilation immediately

If the casualty is conscious, move gently and as little as possible into a comfortable position. A semi-recumbent position is the best. It is easiest for the casualty to breathe in this position and takes some of the strain off the heart.

Loosen any clothing around the neck and reassure that help is on its way. Monitor heart rate and breathing regularly until help arrives. If the person becomes unconscious move to the recovery position



Stop smoking

Smoking is the major cause of heart disease.  It damages the arteries and the circulation of blood Stop immediately.

Take regular exercise

Steady and regular exercise is very beneficial. Walking is a good form of exercise.

Check your blood pressure

High blood pressure can cause a heart attack. Ask your doctor to check your blood pressure

Eat a sensible diet

Cut down on the amount of fatty foods that you eat. Cut fat off meat.

Keep your weight down

If you are overweight, this puts an extra strain on the heart. Shed those excess pounds now!

Avoid unnecessary stress

Do not push yourself to unrealistic targets. Be sensible about the amount of work you do each day. Put the patient in a semi-recumbent position.

Questions 1 - 2

Choose the appropriate letters A - D.

1.    What causes a heart attack?

A.           Too much blood getting to the heart muscle

B.           Not enough blood getting to the heart muscle

C.           An artery in the heart

D.           An obstructed heart muscle

2.  Which of the following is not a sign of a heart attack?

A.pain in the centre of the chest                           

B. Indigestion

C.breathing difficulties
​​​​​​​ or weak and irregular pulse rate